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Transcripts are initiated from 2 distinct promoters, both of which are AT-rich and lack canonical TATA or CAAT motifs; one is upstream of exon 1 and the other downstream, including the 'intronic' region between exons 1 and 3.Complex alternative splicing patterns in the 5-prime UTR and in the 4 exons give rise to multiple CCR5 transcripts.The results suggested that CCR5-positive cells are recruited to inflammatory sites and, as such, may facilitate transmission of macrophage-tropic strains of HIV-1. (1998) found that there were factors other than CCR5 polymorphisms accounting for the fact that exposure to HIV-1 does not usually lead to infection.
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(1996) cloned a human C-C chemokine receptor gene from a human genomic DNA library based on its similarity to a murine C-C chemokine receptor clone (MOP020).
The human gene, which they designated Chem R13, encodes a 352-amino acid protein (designated CCCKR5 by them) with a calculated molecular mass of 40,600 Da and a potential N-linked glycosylation site.
10089882] [Full Text]" pmid="10089882"Farzan et al. (1999) concluded that tyrosine sulfation may contribute to the natural function of many 7-transmembrane-segment receptors and may be a modification common to primate immunodeficiency virus coreceptors.
The HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120 interacts consecutively with CD4 and the CCR5 coreceptor to mediate the entry of certain HIV-1 strains into target cells.
This protection is related to homozygous mutations in CCR5, the receptor for the beta-chemokines, and earlier studies had shown that the same chemokines markedly suppressed the nonsyncytial inducing variants of HIV-1, the chief virus type transmitted from person to person.
However, CCR5 mutations are not likely to be the unique mechanism of protection because HIV-1 variants can use other chemokine receptors as their coreceptor and, indeed, infection has been demonstrated within the presence of such mutations.
CCL5 was required to hold apoptosis and mitochondrial dysfunction in check in virus-infected mouse macrophages in vivo and mouse and human macrophages ex vivo, and the protective effect of CCL5 required activation of CCR5 and the downstream ERK1 (MAPK3; 601795)/ERK2 (MAPK1; 176948) and AKT (164730) signaling pathways. (2003) observed a preferential migratory response in mouse Th1 cells, which express Ccr5, compared with Th2 cells, which express little Ccr5.
T cells from Ccr5-deficient mice were unable to migrate in response to Il16.
In transfected cells, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1-alpha (182283) appeared to be the most potent agonist for CCCKR5, with MIP-1-beta (CCL4; 182284) and RANTES (CCL5; 187011) also active at physiologic concentrations. (1996) detected transcript from the gene in a promyeloblastic cell line, which suggested a potential role for the chemokine receptor in granulocyte lineage proliferation and differentiation. (1996) showed that MIP-1-alpha, MIP-1-beta, and RANTES each inhibit infection of CD4 cells by primary, nonsyncytium-inducing (NSI) HIV-1 strains at the virus entry stage and also block env-mediated cell-cell fusion.
Both groups showed that expression of the CCCKR5 protein renders nonpermissive CD4 cells susceptible to infection by HIV-1 strains (see 609423).
Cyclosporin A, a major ligand of cyclophilin, or anti-C-18 inhibited Il12 production in DCs.Tags: Adult Dating, affair dating, sex dating